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Biomedical Engineering what is all About?

 

Biomedical Engineering what is all About?

·         Silvestro Micera, a neural engineer, led a team that developed abionic hand that can feel

·        Biomedical engineering, or bioengineering, is the application of engineering principles to the fields of biology and health care. Bioengineers work with doctors, therapists and researchers to develop systems, equipment and devices in order to solve clinical problems.

Biomedical engineers have developed a number of life-enhancing and life saving technologies. These include:

·         Prosthetics, such as dentures and artificial limb replacements.

·         Surgical devices and systems, such as robotic and laser surgery.

·         Systems to monitor vital signs and blood chemistry.

·         Implanted devices, such as insulin pumps,pacemakers and artificial organs.

·         Imaging methods, such as ultrasound, X-rays, particle beams and magnetic resonance.

·         Diagnostics, such as lab-on-a-chip and expert systems.

·         Therapeutic equipment and devices, such as kidney dialysis and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

·         Radiation therapy using particle beams and X-rays.

·         Physical therapy devices, such as exercise equipment and wearable tech.

·         The practice of biomedical engineering has a long history. One of the earliest examples is a wood and leather

·         prosthetic toe found on a 3,000-year-old Egyptian mummy. Before that, even simple crutches and walking sticks were a form of engineered assistive devices, and the first person to fashion a splint for a broken bone could be considered to have been an early biomedical engineer.

·         Biomedical engineering has evolved over the years in response to advancements in science and technology. Throughout history, humans have made increasingly more effective devices to diagnose and treat diseases and to alleviate, rehabilitate or compensate for disabilities or injuries. One example is the evolution of hearing aids to mitigate hearing loss through sound amplification. The ear trumpet, a large horn-shaped device that was held up to the ear, was the only "viable form" of hearing assistance until the mid-20th century, according to the Hearing Aid Museum. Electrical devices had been developed before then, but were slow to catch on, the museum said on its website.

·         The works of Alexander Graham Bell and Thomas Edison on sound transmission and amplification in the late 19th and early 20th centuries were applied to make the first tabletop hearing aids. These were followed by the first portable (or "luggable") devices using vacuum-tube amplifiers powered by large batteries. However, the first wearable hearing aids had to await the development of the transistor by William Shockley and his team at Bell Laboratories. Subsequent development of micro-integrated circuits and advance battery technology has led to miniature hearing aids that fit entirely within the ear canal.

Some notable figures in the history of biomedical engineering and their contributions include:

1.       Forrest Bird (mechanical ventilator).

2.       John Charnley (artificial hip replacement).

3.       Graeme Clarke (cochlear implant).

4.       Willem Einthoven (electrocardiograph).

5.       Wilson Greatbatch (internal cardiac pacemaker).

6.       Charles Hufnagel (artificial heart valve).

7.       Robert Jarvik (artificial heart).

8.       Willem Johan Kolff (kidney dialysis).

9.       Rene Laënnec  (stethoscope).

10.   Michel Mirowski  (implantable cardioverter defibrillator).

11.   Wilhelm Roentgen (X-rays).